vni CLAIM TO "COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE 155 and have unfortunately been unwilling to repudiate probably at times powerless to control. For it is one thing to show, as Egyptian Nationalism has done, very great capacity for organisation, and quite another thing to control the forces that have been organised when once some unforeseen accident has set them, perhaps prematurely, in motion. and the Turks, who were so long their masters. But the common tie of Islam must not be underrated. In Hamidian days Turkish political refugees often took sanctuary in Egypt. Many of the great families, including the Sultan's, are still more Turkish than Egyptian, and after the Turkish revolution of 1908, the Khedive Abbas, who could play the Nationalist when it suited him, and many of the Egyptian leaders of the pre-war Nationalist movement, kept up very close relations with the " Young Turks."